Workplace bullying: A systematic review of risk factors and outcomes

Farman A. Moayed, Nancy Daraiseh, Richard Shell, Sam Salem

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Background: Studies investigating workplace bullying started in the early 1990s in Scandinavian countries. Research has been conducted regarding bullying definitions, behaviours, prevalence rates, risk factors and outcomes such as sickness absences, psychological effects, chronic and cardiovascular diseases and lower job satisfaction. To date, no systematic review has been conducted regarding this subject. Objectives: To investigate the association between (1) workplace factors and bullying and (2) workplace bullying and various outcomes. Methods: A critical appraisal was conducted twice after a thorough review of published studies. A definition and a model of workplace bullying are provided. Results: Results showed associations between organizational problems and workplace bullying and between a victim’s personality and workplace bullying. In some cases, strong associations between workplace bullying and a victim’s well-being and performance were found. Conclusions: Results cannot be generalized since there are several confounders and covariates that needed to be considered. There is also a lack of research investigating the characteristics of bullies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-327
Number of pages17
JournalTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2006


  • Mobbing
  • Risk factors
  • Systematic review
  • Workplace bullying

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics


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