Wideband frequency-domain characterization of FR-4 and time-domain causality

Antonije R. Djordjević, Radivoje M. Biljić, Vladana D. Likar-Smiljanić, Tapan K. Sarkar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

303 Scopus citations


FR-4 is one of the most widely used dielectric substrates in the fabrication of printed circuits for fast digital devices. This material exhibits substantial losses and the loss tangent is practically constant over a wide band of frequencies. This paper presents measured data for the complex permittivity of this material from power frequencies up to the microwave region. In addition it gives simple closed-form expressions that approximate the measured data and provide a causal response in the time domain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)662-667
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2001


  • Causality
  • Dielectric losses
  • Dielectric measurements
  • Dispersive media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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