Virtual reference to participatory librarianship: Expanding the conversation

R. David Lankes

Research output: Contribution to Magazine/Trade PublicationArticle

7 Scopus citations


A series of assertions and questions have been introduced acknowledging that the foundation of reference is a conversation for learning. Intensive effort has been taken to understand and reinvent reference in a digital age. Some of the work has focused on systems for reference, evaluating reference and on the communication acts in a reference process. These systems have been joined by a growing use of free, hosted and open source tools including instant messaging and e-mail. Virtual reference is defined as using computer and communications technology to provide reference service to patrons anytime and anywhere. Communication channels used frequently in virtual reference include chat, videoconferencing, voice over IP, e-mail, and instant messaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Specialist publicationBulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
StatePublished - Dec 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Library and Information Sciences


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