Purpose: Vicarious achievement is tested as a source/channel for fulfilling achievement needs and boosting life satisfaction through in-person sport spectating and sport media viewing; factors influential on vicarious achievement are examined. Method: Through ecological momentary assessment and focusing on college students, 2,746 responses from 242 respondents were collected. With multi- and single-level SEM, the effects of sport spectating and sport media viewing on temporal life satisfaction through the mediation of vicarious achievement were tested; performance satisfaction and identification level were examined as influential factors. Findings: Sport spectating was an effective context for boosting life satisfaction through vicarious achievement; sport media viewing was not. Compared to other activities, the extent of achievement perceived from sport spectating was similar to sport participation and greater than sport media viewing; extent of achievement perceived from sport media viewing was greater than non-sport media viewing (e.g. drama). In both contexts, performance satisfaction, identification-level, and vicarious achievement were, respectively, found as a predictor, moderator, and moderated mediator for temporal life satisfaction. Practical implication: Sport spectating can be promoted as leisure contributing to well-being via vicarious achievement. Identification level can facilitate vicarious achievement. Contribution: Empirical evidence of the well-being effect of vicarious achievement in sport is provided based on ecological momentary assessment.
- ecological momentary assessment
- life satisfaction
- moderated mediation
- team identification
- Vicarious achievement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management