The role of Asp-212 in the proton pumping mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has been studied by a combination of site-directed mutagenesis and Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy. Difference spectra were recorded at low temperature for the bR → K and bR → M photoreactions of the mutants Asp-212 → Glu, Asp-212 → Asn, and Asp-212 → Ala. Despite an increased proportion of the 13-cis form of bR (normally associated with dark adaptation), all of the mutants exhibited a light-adapted form containing as a principal component the normal all-trans retinal chromophore. The absence of a shift in the retinal C=C stretching frequency in these mutants indicates that Asp-212 is not a major determinant of the visible absorption wavelength maximum in light-adapted bR. It is unlikely that Asp-212 is the acceptor group for the Schiff base proton since both the Asp-212 → Glu and Asp-212 → Ala mutants formed an M intermediate. All of the Asp-212 mutants were missing a Fourier transform infrared difference band that had been assigned previously to protonation changes of Tyr-185. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which Tyr-185 and Asp-212 form a polarizable hydrogen bond and are positioned near the C13-Schiff base portion of the chromophore. These 2 residues may be involved in stabilizing the relative orientation of the F and G helices and isomerizing the retinal in a regioselective manner about the C13=C14 double bond.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1990|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology