This study explored the interactive effect of members' ethnicity, gender, and perceived union effectiveness in promoting fairness on formal union participation. Research on union participation suggests that formal participation is lowest among ethnic minority and women members. It was predicted and found that the relationship between perceived union effectiveness and formal participation is jointly moderated by ethnicity and gender. The nature of the triple interaction was such that the relationship between perceived effectiveness and formal participation was strongest for ethnic minority women (n = 102), next strongest for nonethnic minority women (n = 300) and nonethnic minority men (n = 734), and weakest for ethnic minority men (n = 82).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Gender Studies
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology