Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech

Jonathan L. Preston, Nickole Brick, Nicole Landi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment program that includes ultrasound biofeedback for children with persisting speech sound errors associated with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: Six children ages 9-15 years participated in a multiple baseline experiment for 18 treatment sessions during which treatment focused on producing sequences involving lingual sounds. Children were cued to modify their tongue movements using visual feedback from real-time ultrasound images. Probe data were collected before, during, and after treatment to assess word-level accuracy for treated and untreated sound sequences. As participants reached preestablished performance criteria, new sequences were introduced into treatment. Results: All participants met the performance criterion (80% accuracy for 2 consecutive sessions) on at least 2 treated sound sequences. Across the 6 participants, performance criterion was met for 23 of 31 treated sequences in an average of 5 sessions. Some participants showed no improvement in untreated sequences, whereas others showed generalization to untreated sequences that were phonetically similar to the treated sequences. Most gains were maintained 2 months after the end of treatment. The percentage of phonemes correct increased significantly from pretreatment to the 2-month follow-up. Conclusion: A treatment program including ultrasound biofeedback is a viable option for improving speech sound accuracy in children with persisting speech sound errors associated with CAS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)627-643
Number of pages17
JournalAmerican journal of speech-language pathology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Articulation
  • Childhood apraxia of speech
  • Children
  • Efficacy
  • Intervention
  • Speech sound disorders

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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