TWOACK: Preventing selfishness in mobile ad hoc networks

Kashyap Balakrishnan, Jing Deng, Pramod K. Varshney

Research output: Contribution to journalConference Articlepeer-review

186 Scopus citations


Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) operate on the basic underlying assumption that all participating nodes fully collaborate in self-organizing functions. However, performing network functions consumes energy and other resources. Therefore, some network nodes may decide against cooperating with others. Providing these selfish nodes, also termed misbehaving nodes, with an incentive to cooperate has been an active research area recently. In this paper, we propose two network-layer acknowledgment-based schemes, termed the TWOACK and the S-TWOACK schemes, which can be simply added-on to any source routing protocol. The TWOACK scheme detects such misbehaving nodes, and then seeks to alleviate the problem by notifying the routing protocol to avoid them in future routes. Details of the two schemes and our evaluation results based on simulations are presented in this paper. We have found that, in a network where up to 40% of the nodes may be misbehaving, the TWOACK scheme results in 20% improvement in packet delivery ratio, with a reasonable additional routing overhead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberNET39-2
Pages (from-to)2137-2142
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC
StatePublished - 2005
Event2005 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC 2005: Broadband Wirelss for the Masses - Ready for Take-off - New Orleans, LA, United States
Duration: Mar 13 2005Mar 17 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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