Tuning Hole Transport Layer Using Urea for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells

Hytham Elbohy, Behzad Bahrami, Sally Mabrouk, Khan Mamun Reza, Ashim Gurung, Rajesh Pathak, Mao Liang, Qiquan Qiao, Kai Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


Interface engineering is critical to the development of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Here, urea treatment of hole transport layer (e.g., poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)) is reported to effectively tune its morphology, conductivity, and work function for improving the efficiency and stability of inverted MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells (PSCs). This treatment has significantly increased MAPbI3 photovoltaic performance to 18.8% for the urea treated PEDOT:PSS PSCs from 14.4% for pristine PEDOT:PSS devices. The use of urea controls phase separation between PEDOT and PSS segments, leading to the formation of a unique fiber-shaped PEDOT:PSS film morphology with well-organized charge transport pathways for improved conductivity from 0.2 S cm−1 for pristine PEDOT:PSS to 12.75 S cm−1 for 5 wt% urea treated PEDOT:PSS. The urea-treatment also addresses a general challenge associated with the acidic nature of PEDOT:PSS, leading to a much improved ambient stability of PSCs. In addition, the device hysteresis is significantly minimized by optimizing the urea content in the treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1806740
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • conductivity
  • hole transport material
  • perovskite solar cell
  • urea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Chemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • General Materials Science
  • Electrochemistry
  • Biomaterials


Dive into the research topics of 'Tuning Hole Transport Layer Using Urea for High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this