Introduction: Researchers have increasingly begun to gather ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data on smoking, but new statistical methods are necessary to fully unlock information from such data. In this paper, we use a new technique, the logistic time-varying effect model (logistic TVEM), to examine the odds of smoking in the 2 weeks after a quit attempt. Methods: Data are from a subsample of participants from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies who achieved initial abstinence (N = 1,106, 58% female). Participants completed up to 4 EMA assessments per day during the 2 weeks after their quit day. Predictors include baseline nicotine dependence, EMA measures of craving and negative affect, and whether an individual was assigned to a placebo, monotherapy, or combination therapy condition. Time-varying effects of these predictors were estimated using logistic TVEM. Results: Cravings were a significant predictor of smoking throughout the entire 2 weeks postquit, whereas the effect of baseline dependence became nonsignificant by the second week, and the effect of negative affect increased over time. Individuals in the monotherapy and combination therapy conditions had decreased odds of smoking compared with placebo in the first week postquit, but these differences were nonsignificant in the second week. Conclusions: Findings suggest that pharmacotherapies are more effective compared with placebo earlier in a quit attempt, when the effect of baseline nicotine dependence on smoking is stronger, whereas the effect of craving and negative affect increased over time. Future cessation therapies may be more successful by providing additional support in the second week after quit attempt.
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