In this paper, we present time-domain integral equation (TDIE) formulations for analyzing transient electromagnetic responses from three-dimensional (3-D) arbitrary shaped closed conducting bodies using the time-domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE), the time-domain magnetic field integral equation (TD-MFIE), and the time-domain combined field integral equation (TD-CFIE). Instead of the conventional marching-on in time (MOT) technique, the solution methods in this paper are based on the Galerkin's method that involves separate spatial and temporal testing procedure. Triangular patch basis functions are used for spatial expansion and testing functions for arbitrarily shaped 3-D structures. The time-domain unknown coefficient is approximated by using an orthonormal basis function set that is derived from the Laguerre functions. These basis functions are also used as temporal testing. Using these Laguerre functions it is possible to evaluate the time derivatives in an analytic fashion. We also propose a second alternative formulation to solve the TDIE. The methods to be described result in very accurate and stable transient responses from conducting objects. Detailed mathematical steps are included and representative numerical results are presented and compared.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics