The Two Cultures of Science: Implications for University-Industry Relationships in the U.S. Agriculture Biotechnology

William B. Lacy, Leland L. Glenna, Dina Biscotti, Rick Welsh, Kate Clancy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Partnerships between U.S. universities and industries have existed for several decades and in recent years have become generally more varied, wider in scope, more aggressive and experimental and higher in public visibility. In addition, in the last few decades, public and private interests have advocated for government policies and laws to globally promote the commercialization of university science. This paper examines the persistence or convergence of the two cultures of science and the implications of this commercialization for university-industry relationships in agriculture biotechnology. The perceptions and values of over 200 U.S. university and industry scientists, managers and administrators who participate in or oversee research collaborations in agricultural biotechnology were analyzed. The findings revealed that the participants in these research relationships continue to perceive very distinct cultures of science and identify a wide range of concerns and disadvantages of these partnerships. Several actions were discussed to ensure that the two cultures serve complementary roles and that they maximize the public benefits from these increasing collaborations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-466
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Integrative Agriculture
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2014


  • Agricultural biotechnology
  • Two cultures of science
  • University-industry relationships

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry
  • Ecology
  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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