The Temporal Attentive Observation (TAO) Scale: Development of an Instrument to Assess Attentive Behavior Sequences During Serious Gameplay

James E. Folkestad, Brian McKernan, Stephanie Train, Rosa Mikeal Martey, Matthew G. Rhodes, Kate Kenski, Adrienne Shaw, Jennifer Stromer-Galley, Benjamin A. Clegg, Tomek Strzalkowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The engaging nature of video games has intrigued learning professionals attempting to capture and retain learners’ attention. Designing learning interventions that not only capture the learner’s attention, but also are designed around the natural cycle of attention will be vital for learning. This paper introduces the temporal attentive observation (TAO) instrument, an instrument developed to assess attentive behavior sequences during serious gameplay. We use an established three-step process for developing observational systems that includes identifying the construct, determining validity, and demonstrating practicality criteria. We conclude that the TAO instrument reliably measures attention behaviors where participants’ faces can be recorded during an experiment. Furthermore, we suggest that TAO should be considered as a part of an attention measurement package.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-81
Number of pages17
JournalTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018

Keywords

  • Attention
  • Behavior
  • Instrument
  • Serious games
  • Temporal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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