The social modes of men: Toward an ecological model of human male relationships

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Here we attempt to define a specifically human ecology within which male reproductive strategies are formulated. By treating the domestic and public spheres of social life as "ecological niches" that men have been forced to compete within or to avoid as best they can, we generate a typology of four "social modes" of human male behavior. We then attempt to explain the broad distribution of social modes within and between human groups based on the relative intensity of scramble and contest competition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-366
Number of pages32
JournalHuman Nature
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Contest competition
  • Human male reproductive strategy
  • Public-domestic distinction
  • Scramble competition
  • Social ecology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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