The renin angiotensin system, oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in obesity and insulin resistance

Latha Ramalingam, Kalhara Menikdiwela, Monique LeMieux, Jannette M. Dufour, Gurvinder Kaur, Nishan Kalupahana, Naima Moustaid-Moussa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by excessive expansion of adipose tissue and is an important risk factor for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, obesity is a major contributor to inflammation and oxidative stress, all of which are key underlying causes for diabetes and insulin resistance. Specifically, adipose tissue secretes bioactives molecules such as inflammatory hormone angiotensin II, generated in the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) from its precursor angiotensinogen. Accumulated evidence suggests that RAS may serve as a strong link between obesity and insulin resistance. Dysregulation of RAS also occurs in several other tissues including those involved in regulation of glucose and whole body homeostasis as well as insulin sensitivity such as muscle, liver and pancreas and heart. Here we review the scientific evidence for these interactions and potential roles for oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in these target tissues which may mediate effects of RAS in metabolic diseases.

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Quality in Diabetes/Obesity and Critical Illness Spectrum of Diseases-edited by P. Hemachandra Reddy. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1106-1114
Number of pages9
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Volume1863
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Renin angiotensin System
  • Oxidative stress
  • NADPH oxidases
  • Obesity and insulin resistance
  • II TYPE-1 RECEPTOR
  • OXYGEN SPECIES GENERATION
  • MUSCLE GLUCOSE-TRANSPORT
  • NAD(P)H OXIDASE ACTIVITY
  • FATTY LIVER-DISEASE
  • ADIPOSE-TISSUE
  • SKELETAL-MUSCLE
  • NADPH OXIDASE
  • MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTOR
  • ADIPOCYTE DYSFUNCTION

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