The neurocognitive phenotype in velo-cardio-facial syndrome: A developmental perspective

Kevin M. Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Wendy R. Kates

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Although research has focused primarily on the wide range of variability in the cognitive phenotype between individuals with velo-cardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), we know relatively little about the extent to which within-individual expressions of the cognitive phenotype remain stable throughout development. General cognitive functioning in the low borderline range is the most consistent cognitive finding. Stronger reading decoding and spelling skills as well as auditory/verbal rote memory skills have been reported to be areas of relative strength. Conversely, significant visuospatial dysfunction, diminished math attainment, and executive dysfunction have all been reported as phenotypic. We propose several considerations that could advance our knowledge of developmental changes in the VCFS cognitive phenotype. The most salient of these is the need for more longitudinal designs with carefully matched control participants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-51
Number of pages9
JournalDevelopmental Disabilities Research Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • 22q11 deletion syndrome
  • Cognitive
  • Neuropsychology
  • Velo-cardio-facial syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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