The measurement of effectuation: highlighting research tensions and opportunities for the future

Alexander McKelvie, Gaylen N. Chandler, Dawn R. DeTienne, Anette Johansson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


In this paper, we address issues related to the measurement of effectuation. We identify and examine 81 empirical studies focusing on research tensions (fundamental assumptions, theoretical underpinnings, boundary conditions, units of analyses, measures, and temporal issues) within the effectuation literature. Our findings suggest these tensions inhibit the accumulation of empirical knowledge. We highlight the challenges involved in effectively measuring effectuation and offer solutions and recommendations for systematic knowledge accumulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSmall Business Economics
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • Causation
  • Effectuation
  • Measurement
  • Specification
  • Theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)
  • Economics and Econometrics

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