The impact of antimicrobial resistance awareness interventions involving schoolchildren, development of an animation and parents engagements: a pilot study

Bernard Appiah, Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Elfreda Samman, Augustina Koduah, Irene Akwo Kretchy, Julius Yaw Ludu, Gloria Odonkor, Su Hyun Nam, Martha Gyansa-Luterrodt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health challenge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where antibiotics are widely available to consumers, leading to their misuse. However, AMR educational interventions for engaging parents of schoolchildren are mainly lacking in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the potential of AMR animation and schoolchildren in influencing parents’ AMR knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Methods: Parents of schoolchildren aged 11–15 years in Tema, a city in Ghana, watched and discussed an AMR animation designed with ideas from the schoolchildren’s top stories and picture drawings. The children from two schools were first engaged with AMR lessons, with one school using storytelling, the other school using picture drawing, and none serving as a control. The children were then asked to discuss the lessons with their parents. Baseline surveys of parents of randomly selected children were conducted to assess AMR knowledge, attitudes and beliefs before engaging the students and parents, and immediately after the parents participated in viewing and discussing the animation. McNemar and t-tests were used to assess changes in AMR knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Results: Parents who participated in the animation event, and whose schoolchildren were in the storytelling intervention school had significantly improved knowledge regarding the statement “Antibiotics will cure any infection” (p = 0.021, χ2 = 0.711; 88% vs 50%) between baseline and endline. However, these parents also had statistically significant decreased scores regarding the statement “Antibiotics do not kill our good bacteria” (p = 0.021, χ2 = 1.042; 71.4% vs 40%) between baseline and endline. There was no significant effect on any statement among parents whose children were in the picture drawing school. However, t-test results combining the statements as composite scores showed statistically significant difference in only the attitude construct among parents whose children participated in storytelling intervention (p = 0.043) or picture drawing intervention (p = 0.019). There were no statistically significant changes in knowledge and beliefs constructs. Conclusions: This study shows that interventions involving schoolchildren with parents engagements and AMR animation could influence parents’ AMR attitudes. The intervention could also positively or negatively impact parents’ AMR knowledge. Modifications of the interventions may be needed for tackling AMR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number26
JournalAntimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Animation
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Parents
  • Public engagement
  • Schoolchildren

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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