We study the formulation of bond-orientational order in an arbitrary two-dimensional geometry. We find that bond-orientational order is properly formulated within the framework of differential geometry with torsion. The torsion reflects the intrinsic frustration for two-dimensional crystals with arbitrary geometry. Within a Debye-Huckel approximation, torsion may be identified as the density of dislocations. Changes in the geometry of the system cause a reorganization of the torsion density that preserves bond-orientational order. As a byproduct, we are able to derive several identities involving the topology, defect density and geometric invariants such as Gaussian curvature. The formalism is used to derive the general free energy for a 2D sample of arbitrary geometry, in both the crystalline and hexatic phases. Applications to conical and spherical geometries are briefly addressed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics
- Physics and Astronomy(all)