The first principles of instruction: an examination of their impact on preservice teachers’ TPACK

Jacob A. Hall, Jing Lei, Qiu Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


The flipped approach has been widely adopted in higher education, yet its theoretical framework and use in teacher preparation courses have been limited. To address these gaps, this study examined the impact of the First Principles of Instruction when applied to designing face-to-face and flipped technology integration courses. Participants were 32 preservice teachers enrolled during the 2017 spring and fall semesters. Employing a 3-way mixed factorial research design, we measured participants’ technological, pedagogical, content knowledge (TPACK) outcomes in each group and compared the outcomes between the face-to-face and flipped groups. In both groups, preservice teachers’ self-perceptions and application of TPACK statistically significantly increased. The magnitude of the TPACK application results (F2F p <.001, d = 1.17; Flippedap <.001, d = 1.97) strongly demonstrates the First Principles’ potential to frame effective course design. Further analyses revealed no statistically significant differences between groups’ TPACK outcomes. These non-significant differences suggest the First Principles of Instruction may be equally effective for designing flipped and face-to-face courses. We conclude the article by discussing implications for course design and detailing considerations for future research on flipped approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3115-3142
Number of pages28
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Factorial design
  • First principles of instruction
  • Flipped model
  • Teacher education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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