The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta

M. Nicholl, E. Berger, D. Kasen, B. D. Metzger, J. Elias, C. Briceño, K. D. Alexander, P. K. Blanchard, R. Chornock, P. S. Cowperthwaite, T. Eftekhari, W. Fong, R. Margutti, V. A. Villar, P. K.G. Williams, W. Brown, J. Annis, A. Bahramian, D. Brout, Duncan Brown & 14 others H. Y. Chen, J. C. Clemens, E. Dennihy, B. Dunlap, D. E. Holz, E. Marchesini, F. Massaro, N. Moskowitz, I. Pelisoli, A. Rest, F. Ricci, M. Sako, M. Soares-Santos, J. Strader

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the Southern Astrophysical Research and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly fading blue component (T ≈ 5500 K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than ≳4.5 days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at ∼7900 Å; at t ≲ 4.5 days. The colors, rapid evolution, and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light r-process nuclei with atomic mass number A ≲ 140. This indicates a sightline within θobs ≲ 45° of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests ∼0.03 M o of blue ejecta, with a velocity of . The required lanthanide fraction is ∼10-4, but this drops to <10-5in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of ≲12 km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to r-process nucleosynthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL18
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume848
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 20 2017

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LIGO (observatory)
binary stars
ejecta
merger
neutron stars
optical spectrum
electromagnetism
atomic weights
ultraviolet spectra
fading
nuclear fusion
Hubble Space Telescope
gravitational waves
astrophysics
telescopes
rare earth element
color
orbitals
nuclei
radii

Keywords

  • binaries: close
  • gravitational waves
  • nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances
  • stars: neutron

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta. / Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Kasen, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Elias, J.; Briceño, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K.G.; Brown, W.; Annis, J.; Bahramian, A.; Brout, D.; Brown, Duncan; Chen, H. Y.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Dunlap, B.; Holz, D. E.; Marchesini, E.; Massaro, F.; Moskowitz, N.; Pelisoli, I.; Rest, A.; Ricci, F.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Strader, J.

In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, Vol. 848, No. 2, L18, 20.10.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nicholl, M, Berger, E, Kasen, D, Metzger, BD, Elias, J, Briceño, C, Alexander, KD, Blanchard, PK, Chornock, R, Cowperthwaite, PS, Eftekhari, T, Fong, W, Margutti, R, Villar, VA, Williams, PKG, Brown, W, Annis, J, Bahramian, A, Brout, D, Brown, D, Chen, HY, Clemens, JC, Dennihy, E, Dunlap, B, Holz, DE, Marchesini, E, Massaro, F, Moskowitz, N, Pelisoli, I, Rest, A, Ricci, F, Sako, M, Soares-Santos, M & Strader, J 2017, 'The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta', Astrophysical Journal Letters, vol. 848, no. 2, L18. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9029
Nicholl, M. ; Berger, E. ; Kasen, D. ; Metzger, B. D. ; Elias, J. ; Briceño, C. ; Alexander, K. D. ; Blanchard, P. K. ; Chornock, R. ; Cowperthwaite, P. S. ; Eftekhari, T. ; Fong, W. ; Margutti, R. ; Villar, V. A. ; Williams, P. K.G. ; Brown, W. ; Annis, J. ; Bahramian, A. ; Brout, D. ; Brown, Duncan ; Chen, H. Y. ; Clemens, J. C. ; Dennihy, E. ; Dunlap, B. ; Holz, D. E. ; Marchesini, E. ; Massaro, F. ; Moskowitz, N. ; Pelisoli, I. ; Rest, A. ; Ricci, F. ; Sako, M. ; Soares-Santos, M. ; Strader, J. / The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta. In: Astrophysical Journal Letters. 2017 ; Vol. 848, No. 2.
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abstract = "We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the Southern Astrophysical Research and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly fading blue component (T ≈ 5500 K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than ≳4.5 days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at ∼7900 {\AA}; at t ≲ 4.5 days. The colors, rapid evolution, and featureless spectrum are consistent with a {"}blue{"} kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light r-process nuclei with atomic mass number A ≲ 140. This indicates a sightline within θobs ≲ 45° of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests ∼0.03 M o of blue ejecta, with a velocity of . The required lanthanide fraction is ∼10-4, but this drops to <10-5in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of ≲12 km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to r-process nucleosynthesis.",
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AU - Nicholl, M.

AU - Berger, E.

AU - Kasen, D.

AU - Metzger, B. D.

AU - Elias, J.

AU - Briceño, C.

AU - Alexander, K. D.

AU - Blanchard, P. K.

AU - Chornock, R.

AU - Cowperthwaite, P. S.

AU - Eftekhari, T.

AU - Fong, W.

AU - Margutti, R.

AU - Villar, V. A.

AU - Williams, P. K.G.

AU - Brown, W.

AU - Annis, J.

AU - Bahramian, A.

AU - Brout, D.

AU - Brown, Duncan

AU - Chen, H. Y.

AU - Clemens, J. C.

AU - Dennihy, E.

AU - Dunlap, B.

AU - Holz, D. E.

AU - Marchesini, E.

AU - Massaro, F.

AU - Moskowitz, N.

AU - Pelisoli, I.

AU - Rest, A.

AU - Ricci, F.

AU - Sako, M.

AU - Soares-Santos, M.

AU - Strader, J.

PY - 2017/10/20

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N2 - We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the Southern Astrophysical Research and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly fading blue component (T ≈ 5500 K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than ≳4.5 days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at ∼7900 Å; at t ≲ 4.5 days. The colors, rapid evolution, and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light r-process nuclei with atomic mass number A ≲ 140. This indicates a sightline within θobs ≲ 45° of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests ∼0.03 M o of blue ejecta, with a velocity of . The required lanthanide fraction is ∼10-4, but this drops to <10-5in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of ≲12 km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to r-process nucleosynthesis.

AB - We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the Southern Astrophysical Research and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly fading blue component (T ≈ 5500 K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than ≳4.5 days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at ∼7900 Å; at t ≲ 4.5 days. The colors, rapid evolution, and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light r-process nuclei with atomic mass number A ≲ 140. This indicates a sightline within θobs ≲ 45° of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests ∼0.03 M o of blue ejecta, with a velocity of . The required lanthanide fraction is ∼10-4, but this drops to <10-5in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of ≲12 km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to r-process nucleosynthesis.

KW - binaries: close

KW - gravitational waves

KW - nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances

KW - stars: neutron

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