The effect of perceptual information on output interference

Sharon Chen, Kenneth J. Malmberg, Melissa Prince, Shantai Peckoo, Amy H. Criss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Retrieval from episodic memory has consequences (Malmberg, Lehman, Annis, Criss, & Shiffrin, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 61; 285–313, 2014). In some cases, the consequences are beneficial, as in the improvement in memory for items that were already retrieved (Izawa, 1970, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2, Pt.1), 340–344; Izawa, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(1): 10–21, 1971; Roediger & Karpicke, Psychological Science, 17(3), 249–255, 2006). In other cases, the consequences are negative, as in the case of output interference (OI; Wickens, Borne, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 440–445, 1963). OI is the decrease in accuracy in episodic memory with increasing test trials. A release from OI is observed when accuracy rebounds following a switch in the category of item being tested (Criss, Salomão, Malmberg, Aue, Kilic, & Claridge, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(4): 316–326, 2018; Malmberg, Criss, Gangwani, & Shiffrin, Psychological Science, 23(2): 115–119, 2012). In all reports thus far, a release from OI was observed when the conceptual information of stimuli was switched. Here, we evaluate the possibility that changing perceptual information causes a release from OI by presenting items in two perceptual forms (image, audio recording or printed text of the corresponding word) either mixed or blocked at test. A release from OI was observed only for images. We discuss the roles of conceptual and perceptual information in producing OI within the retrieving effectively from memory modeling framework.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-278
Number of pages10
JournalPsychonomic Bulletin and Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 15 2019


  • Interference
  • Output interference
  • Perceptual information
  • Recognition memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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