Retrieval from episodic memory has consequences (Malmberg, Lehman, Annis, Criss, & Shiffrin, The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 61; 285–313, 2014). In some cases, the consequences are beneficial, as in the improvement in memory for items that were already retrieved (Izawa, 1970, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83(2, Pt.1), 340–344; Izawa, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89(1): 10–21, 1971; Roediger & Karpicke, Psychological Science, 17(3), 249–255, 2006). In other cases, the consequences are negative, as in the case of output interference (OI; Wickens, Borne, & Allen, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 2, 440–445, 1963). OI is the decrease in accuracy in episodic memory with increasing test trials. A release from OI is observed when accuracy rebounds following a switch in the category of item being tested (Criss, Salomão, Malmberg, Aue, Kilic, & Claridge, Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64(4): 316–326, 2018; Malmberg, Criss, Gangwani, & Shiffrin, Psychological Science, 23(2): 115–119, 2012). In all reports thus far, a release from OI was observed when the conceptual information of stimuli was switched. Here, we evaluate the possibility that changing perceptual information causes a release from OI by presenting items in two perceptual forms (image, audio recording or printed text of the corresponding word) either mixed or blocked at test. A release from OI was observed only for images. We discuss the roles of conceptual and perceptual information in producing OI within the retrieving effectively from memory modeling framework.
- Output interference
- Perceptual information
- Recognition memory
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)