The construct validity of passive-aggressive personality disorder

Christopher J. Hopwood, Leslie C. Morey, John C. Markowitz, Anthony Pinto, Andrew E. Skodol, John G. Gunderson, Mary C. Zanarini, M. Tracie Shea, Shirley Yen, Thomas H. McGlashan, Emily B. Ansell, Carlos M. Grilo, Charles A. Sanislow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Scopus citations


Although Passive Aggressive personality disorder (PAPD) plays an important role in many theories of personality pathology, it was consigned to the appendix of the fourth edition of the DSM. The scientific basis of this decision has been questioned, but several controversies persist regarding PAPD, including its structure, content validity, overlap with other PDs, and relations to validating variables such as personality traits, childhood experiences, and clinically relevant correlates. This study examined these facets of PAPD's construct validity in a large clinical sample. Results suggest that the construct is unidimensional, internally consistent, and reasonably stable. Furthermore, PAPD appears systematically related to borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, sets of personality traits, and childhood experiences consistent with several theoretical formulations, dysfunction, substance abuse disorders, and history of hospitalizations. Overall, results support the construct validity of PAPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)256-267
Number of pages12
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Hopwood, C. J., Morey, L. C., Markowitz, J. C., Pinto, A., Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Zanarini, M. C., Shea, M. T., Yen, S., McGlashan, T. H., Ansell, E. B., Grilo, C. M., & Sanislow, C. A. (2009). The construct validity of passive-aggressive personality disorder. Psychiatry, 72(3), 256-267.