The clinical utility of salivary biomarkers in the identification of type 2 diabetes risk and metabolic syndrome

Priya Desai, Lorin Donovan, Elizabeth Janowitz, Joon Young Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Type 2 diabetes is traditionally diagnosed by the use of an oral glucose tolerance test and/or HbA1c, both of which require serum collection. Various biomarkers, which are measurable biological substances that provide clinical insight on disease state, have also been effective in the early identification and risk prediction of inflammatory diseases. Measuring biomarker concentrations has traditionally been obtained through serum collection as well. However, numerous biomarkers are detectable in saliva. Salivary analysis has more recently been introduced into research as a potential non-invasive, cost-effective diagnostic for the early identification of type 2 diabetes risk in adults and youth. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to compare 6 established inflammatory biomarkers of type 2 diabetes, in serum and saliva, and determine if similar diagnostic effectiveness is seen in saliva. A lack of standardized salivary analysis, processing, and collection accounts for errors and inconsistencies in conclusive data amongst studies. Proposing a national standardization in salivary analysis, coupled with increased data and research on the utility of saliva as a diagnostic, poses the potential for salivary analysis to be used in diagnostic settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3587-3599
Number of pages13
JournalDiabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity
StatePublished - 2020


  • Biomarkers
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Oxidative stress
  • Saliva
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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