Telling me quickly: How arousing fast-paced PSAs decrease self-other differences

T. Makana Chock, Julia R. Fox, James R. Angelini, Seungjo Lee, Annie Lang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


This study found that increasing the pacing of antisubstance radio Public Service Announcements (PSAs) increased perceived effects on self and diminished perceived differences between effects on self and on others. This was more evident for messages with arousing content than for those with calm content. The study used a mixed multivariate design with arousing content (2), production pacing (3), and message (4) as within-subjects factors and order of presentation (4) as a between-subjects factor. The impact of increased pacing was greater for those who made third-person (3P) judgments (others more affected than self) than by those who made first-person (1P) judgments (self more affected than others). In addition to message features, behavior also influenced perceived message effects. Analysis of a subset of PSAs using antismoking messages found that smokers were more likely to make 3P judgments and nonsmokers 1P judgments about message effects. Implications for PSA design are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)618-636
Number of pages19
JournalCommunication Research
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2007


  • Antismoking campaigns
  • Limited capacity
  • Third-person e fect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Communication
  • Linguistics and Language


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