Superstrings at high temperature

Mark J. Bowick, L. C.R. Wijewardhana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

154 Scopus citations


The behavior of ten-dimensional superstrings at high temperatures is studied by use of the microcanonical ensemble. We focus on closed superstring theories. The massive string excitations alone have negative specific heat. Such a system can reach equilibrium with the zero modes of the string if the energy carried by zero modes is less than a given fraction of the total energy. The temperature can then exceed the Hagedorn temperature. Some consequences for the evolution of the universe are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2485-2488
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number23
StatePublished - 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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