Superstring gravity and the early universe

Mark John Bowick, L. C R Wijewardhana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ten-dimensional superstring theories have been proposed as candidates for a unified description of all the forces of nature. These theories reduce to Einstein gravity coupled to Yang-Mills interactions at energy scales small compared to the string tension. The phenomenologically promising superstring theory, the heterotic string, is investigated at the high temperatures and short distances relevant in the early universe. The massive string modes alone constitute an unstable thermodynamic system with negative specific heat. The conditions for equilibrium between the massive string modes and the massless modes (radiation) are derived. The large energy fluctuations of the system require the use of the microcanonical ensemble. There is a maximum temperature which exceeds the temperature at which the canonical partition function becomes divergent. Above a critical volume there is a phase transition during which the massive string modes must evaporate. The possibilities of spontaneous compactification, large entropy production, and a solution of the horizon and flatness problems are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-66
Number of pages8
JournalGeneral Relativity and Gravitation
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1986
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

strings
universe
gravitation
string theory
flatness
horizon
partitions
specific heat
entropy
thermodynamics
temperature
energy
radiation
interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Superstring gravity and the early universe. / Bowick, Mark John; Wijewardhana, L. C R.

In: General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 18, No. 1, 01.1986, p. 59-66.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bowick, Mark John ; Wijewardhana, L. C R. / Superstring gravity and the early universe. In: General Relativity and Gravitation. 1986 ; Vol. 18, No. 1. pp. 59-66.
@article{bc2de5a28d32472181e030c7e61ff425,
title = "Superstring gravity and the early universe",
abstract = "Ten-dimensional superstring theories have been proposed as candidates for a unified description of all the forces of nature. These theories reduce to Einstein gravity coupled to Yang-Mills interactions at energy scales small compared to the string tension. The phenomenologically promising superstring theory, the heterotic string, is investigated at the high temperatures and short distances relevant in the early universe. The massive string modes alone constitute an unstable thermodynamic system with negative specific heat. The conditions for equilibrium between the massive string modes and the massless modes (radiation) are derived. The large energy fluctuations of the system require the use of the microcanonical ensemble. There is a maximum temperature which exceeds the temperature at which the canonical partition function becomes divergent. Above a critical volume there is a phase transition during which the massive string modes must evaporate. The possibilities of spontaneous compactification, large entropy production, and a solution of the horizon and flatness problems are discussed.",
author = "Bowick, {Mark John} and Wijewardhana, {L. C R}",
year = "1986",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF00843749",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "59--66",
journal = "General Relativity and Gravitation",
issn = "0001-7701",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Superstring gravity and the early universe

AU - Bowick, Mark John

AU - Wijewardhana, L. C R

PY - 1986/1

Y1 - 1986/1

N2 - Ten-dimensional superstring theories have been proposed as candidates for a unified description of all the forces of nature. These theories reduce to Einstein gravity coupled to Yang-Mills interactions at energy scales small compared to the string tension. The phenomenologically promising superstring theory, the heterotic string, is investigated at the high temperatures and short distances relevant in the early universe. The massive string modes alone constitute an unstable thermodynamic system with negative specific heat. The conditions for equilibrium between the massive string modes and the massless modes (radiation) are derived. The large energy fluctuations of the system require the use of the microcanonical ensemble. There is a maximum temperature which exceeds the temperature at which the canonical partition function becomes divergent. Above a critical volume there is a phase transition during which the massive string modes must evaporate. The possibilities of spontaneous compactification, large entropy production, and a solution of the horizon and flatness problems are discussed.

AB - Ten-dimensional superstring theories have been proposed as candidates for a unified description of all the forces of nature. These theories reduce to Einstein gravity coupled to Yang-Mills interactions at energy scales small compared to the string tension. The phenomenologically promising superstring theory, the heterotic string, is investigated at the high temperatures and short distances relevant in the early universe. The massive string modes alone constitute an unstable thermodynamic system with negative specific heat. The conditions for equilibrium between the massive string modes and the massless modes (radiation) are derived. The large energy fluctuations of the system require the use of the microcanonical ensemble. There is a maximum temperature which exceeds the temperature at which the canonical partition function becomes divergent. Above a critical volume there is a phase transition during which the massive string modes must evaporate. The possibilities of spontaneous compactification, large entropy production, and a solution of the horizon and flatness problems are discussed.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33745062677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33745062677&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00843749

DO - 10.1007/BF00843749

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33745062677

VL - 18

SP - 59

EP - 66

JO - General Relativity and Gravitation

JF - General Relativity and Gravitation

SN - 0001-7701

IS - 1

ER -