Summary graphics for integrated visualization in dynamic cartography

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Dynamic cartography calls for a single, more cognitively friendly graphic that summarizes salient relationships in an animated sequence of maps. The theory of human information processing suggests that because the human eye-brain system does not instantaneously process patterns from short-term memory through to long-term memory, information presented toward the end of a dynamic cartographic sequence retards the memory and comprehension of information presented earlier in the sequence. Four types of summary graphics hold particular promise as animation supplements: (1) the centrographic time-series map/used since the late 19th century to portray the westward march of the center of the U.S. population; (2) the biplot, a joint, twodimensional representation of time units and places based upon two principal components; (3) canonical trend-surface analysis, which might extract one or two salient spatial trends, the canonical loadings of which can be plotted in a time-series graph showing when each trend was particularly prominent; and (4) the time-series correlation graph, which reveals temporal variation in the apparent influence of given trends or regionalizations on a particular bivariate correlation. Because an animated sequence of maps can promote understanding of an otherwise complicated summary graphic, the cartographic animation and its summary graphic can be complementary.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-36
Number of pages14
JournalCartography and Geographic Information Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1992


  • Animation
  • Biplot
  • Canonical trend surface
  • Centrographic map
  • Dynamic cartography
  • Interactive map viewing
  • Standard-deviation ellipse
  • Statistical graphics
  • Summary graphic
  • Time-series correlation graph

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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