Subjective Randomness in a Non-cooperative Game

Michael Payton, Jeffrey C. Zemla, Joseph L. Austerweil

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Rock, Paper, Scissors (RPS) is a competitive game. There are three actions: rock, paper, and scissors. The game's rules are simple: scissors beats paper, rock beats scissors and paper beats rock (all signs stalemate against themselves). Over multiple games with the same opponent, optimal play according to a Nash Equilibrium requires subjects to play with genuine randomness. To examine randomness judgments in the context of competition, we tested subjects with identical sequences in two conditions: one produced from a dice roll, one from someone playing rock, paper, scissors. We compared these findings to models of subjective randomness from Falk and Konold (1997) and from Griffiths and Tenenbaum (2001), which explain assessments of randomness as a function of algorithmic complexity and statistical inference, respectively. In both conditions the models fail to adequately describe subjective randomness judgements of ternary outcomes. We also observe that context influences perceptions of randomness such that some isomorphic sequences produced from intentional play are perceived as less random than dice rolls. We discuss this finding in terms of the relation between patterns and opponent modeling.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society
Subtitle of host publicationCreativity + Cognition + Computation, CogSci 2019
PublisherThe Cognitive Science Society
Pages2544-2549
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)0991196775, 9780991196777
StatePublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes
Event41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Creativity + Cognition + Computation, CogSci 2019 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: Jul 24 2019Jul 27 2019

Publication series

NameProceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Creativity + Cognition + Computation, CogSci 2019

Conference

Conference41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society: Creativity + Cognition + Computation, CogSci 2019
Country/TerritoryCanada
CityMontreal
Period7/24/197/27/19

Keywords

  • opponent modeling
  • pattern recognition
  • Randomness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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