Status of selected nutrients and progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

J. D. Bogden, F. W. Kemp, S. Han, W. Li, K. Bruening, T. Denny, J. M. Oleske, J. Lloyd, H. Baker, G. Perez, P. Kloser, J. Skurnick, D. B. Louria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Background: Immune function is highly dependent on nutritional status because the large mass and high rate of cellular turnover of the immune system make it a major user of nutrients. Furthermore, nutrient requirements may be increased during acute and chronic infections, including HIV-1 infection. Objective: The current study was designed to assess relations among HIV-1 progression and 11 nutritional and demographic variables. Design: The participants were 106 HIV-infected outpatients and 29 uninfected control subjects (n = 89 men and 46 women; age range: 35-57 y). The HIV-infected subjects represented a broad range of disease progression. Results: We found lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium and of erythrocyte reduced glutathione beginning early in the course of HIV-1 infection. Significantly decreased hematocrit and increased serum copper concentration developed only late in the course of the disease. Statistically significant univariate associations were found between the CD4+ T lymphocyte count and hematocrit, plasma magnesium concentration, and plasma zinc concentration. The lowest erythrocyte magnesium concentrations occurred in HIV-infected subjects who consumed alcoholic beverages. Independent variables that were significant joint predictors of CD4+ cell count in multiple regression analyses were hematocrit and plasma free choline and zinc concentrations. These 3 factors together explained 43% of the variability in CD4+ cell counts. Conclusion: The results provide evidence that compromised nutritional and antioxidant status begin early in the course of HIV-1 infection and may contribute to disease progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)809-815
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • AIDS
  • Alco hol
  • Antioxidants
  • Choline
  • Copper
  • Ethanol
  • Glutathione
  • HIV infection
  • HIV progression
  • HIV-1 infection
  • Hematocrit
  • Magnesium
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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