Specific differences in temporal binding aspects of the attentional blink in Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Justin Kopec, Natalie Russo, Kevin M. Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Wendy R. Kates

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by a variety of cognitive impairments, including difficulty with attention. 22q11DS is the strongest known genetic risk factor for developing schizophrenia, a disorder characterized by impairments in visual attention and temporal binding processes. Here we examine a specific temporal visual attention phenomenon (the attentional blink; AB) within two rapid serial visual presentation tasks, and compare those with 22q11DS to groups of typically developing individuals matched on chronological (CA) and mental age (MA). Performance of individuals with 22q11DS was sensitive to differing task demands. On a Category Task, individuals with 22q11DS performed similarly to control groups on all measures of the AB, with the exception of lower detection accuracy of the first of two targets. In contrast, on a feature-based Color Task which required temporal binding of stimulus features, individuals with 22q11DS differed from CA and MA matched control groups on all AB performance measures, exhibiting lower target accuracy, more temporal binding errors, and a deeper, more protracted AB. Temporal binding in the visual domain is thought to be dependent on a serial attention mechanism that facilitates simultaneous firing of neurons in multiple areas of the visual cortex, activating short-term working memory for storage of bound features. Given the discrepancy between these two tasks, results suggest that temporal binding processes may be significantly affected in individuals with 22q11DS, a finding that importantly, has been previously demonstrated among individuals with schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-79
Number of pages13
JournalCortex
Volume108
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2018

Keywords

  • Attentional blink
  • Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
  • Temporal attention
  • Visual processing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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