The Indian Ocean and Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus and Tursiops truncatus) are among the best studied echolocating toothed whales. However, almost all echolocation studies on bottlenose dolphins have been made with captive animals, and the echolocation signals of free-ranging animals have not been quantified. Here, biosonar source parameters from wild T. aduncus and T. truncatus were measured with linear three- and four-hydrophone arrays in four geographic locations. The two species had similar source parameters, with source levels of 177-228 dB re 1 Pa peak to peak, click durations of 8-72 s, centroid frequencies of 33-109 kHz and rms bandwidths between 23 and 54 kHz. T. aduncus clicks had a higher frequency emphasis than T. truncatus. The transmission directionality index was up to 3 dB higher for T. aduncus (29 dB) as compared to T. truncatus (26 dB). The high directionality of T. aduncus does not appear to be only a physical consequence of a higher frequency emphasis in clicks, but may also be caused by differences in the internal properties of the sound production system.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics