The valley-to-peak difference in power consumption is a crucial problem in load regulation and control for a power grid. By allowing electric vehicles (EVs) to charge during off-peak hours and feed power back into the grid during peak hours, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology can help to shave the power peak. Long-distance communication is essential for data exchange between dispersed EVs and charging stations for the realization of V2G systems. However, because of the high mobility of EVs, the highvolume data transmission required and the limitations of the third-party infrastructure, it is challenging to achieve efficient and effective communication. To address these challenges, we propose a new V2G network architecture based on software-defined networking (SDN) technology. (1) We use an IEEE 802.11 WiFibased long-distance (WiLD) network with the TDMA scheme as the backhaul network, and (2) we partially replace the road side units (RSUs) with some of the WiLD nodes to provide access for, and to rapidly broadcast data to, EVs. In addition, we propose: (3) a two-stage flow table mechanism and a double roaming mechanism to address the mobility demands of V2G network terminals; and (4) a rapid data transmission scheme for communication from charging stations to EVs. A testbed was built to validate the proposed network architecture. Experimental results show that the communication time delay is in the order of milliseconds and that the reliability is higher than 99.9%.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Automotive Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications