The identification of crystalline drug polymorphs using terahertz vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful approach for the nondestructive and noninvasive characterization of solid-state pharmaceuticals. However, a complete understanding of the terahertz spectra of molecular solids is challenging to obtain because of the complex nature of the low-frequency vibrational motions found in the sub-3 THz (sub-100 cm-1) range. Unambiguous assignments of the observed spectral features can be achieved through quantum mechanical solid-state simulations of crystal structures and lattice vibrations utilizing the periodic boundary condition approach. The terahertz spectra of two polymorphs of enalapril maleate are presented here to demonstrate that even large pharmaceuticals can be successfully modeled using solid-state density functional theory, including cocrystalline solids comprised of multiple distinct species. These simulations enable spectral assignments to be made, but also provide insights into the conformational and cohesion energies that contribute to the polymorph stabilities. The results reveal that the Form II polymorph of enalapril maleate is the more stable of the two under ambient conditions, and that this stability is driven by a greater intermolecular cohesion energy as compared to Form I.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry