Room temperature, air crystallized perovskite film for high performance solar cells

Ashish Dubey, Nicholas Kantack, Nirmal Adhikari, Khan Mamun Reza, Swaminathan Venkatesan, Mukesh Kumar, Devendra Khatiwada, Seth Darling, Qiquan Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


For the first time, room temperature heating free growth and crystallization of perovskite films in ambient air without the use of thermal annealing is reported. Highly efficient perovskite nanorod-based solar cells were made using ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3 nanorods/PC60BM/rhodamine/Ag. All the layers except PEDOT:PSS were processed at room temperature thereby eliminating the need for thermal treatment. Perovskite films were spin coated inside a N2 filled glovebox and immediately were taken outside in air having 40% relative humidity (RH). Exposure to humid air was observed to promote the crystallization process in perovskite films even at room temperature. Perovskite films kept for 5 hours in ambient air showed nanorod-like morphology having high crystallinity, with devices exhibiting the highest PCE of 16.83%, which is much higher than the PCE of 11.94% for traditional thermally annealed perovskite film based devices. It was concluded that moisture plays an important role in room temperature crystallization of pure perovskite nanorods, showing improved optical and charge transport properties, which resulted in high performance solar cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10231-10240
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number26
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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