Relationships between outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and body mass index in children: A 12-country study

Richard Larouche, Tiago V. Barreira, Gang Hu, José Maia, Olga L. Sarmiento, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Emily F. Mire, Jean Philippe Chaput, Estelle V. Lambert, Tim Olds, Martyn Standage, Kevin Belanger, Mikael Fogelholm, Carol Maher, Vincent Onywera, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Mark S. Tremblay, Timothy S. Church, Denise G. Lambert, Stephanie BroylesBen Butitta, Catherine Champagne, Shannon Cocreham, Kara Dentro, Katy Drazba, Deirdre Harrington, William Johnson, Dione Milauskas, Allison Tohme, Ruben Rodarte, Bobby Amoroso, John Luopa, Rebecca Neiberg, Scott Rushing, Timothy Olds, Lucy Lewis, Katia Ferrar, Effie Georgiadis, Rebecca Stanley, Victor Keihan Rodrigues Matsudo, Sandra Matsudo, Timoteo Araujo, Luis Carlos De Oliveira, Leandro Rezende, Luis Fabiano, Diogo Bezerra, Gerson Ferrari, Priscilla Bélanger, Mike Borghese, Charles Boyer, Allana LeBlanc, Claire Francis, Geneviève Leduc, Pei Zhao, Gang Hu, Chengming Diao, Wei Li, Weiqin Li, Enqing Liu, Gongshu Liu, Hongyan Liu, Jian Ma, Yijuan Qiao, Huiguang Tian, Yue Wang, Tao Zhang, Fuxia Zhang, Julio Acosta, Yalta Alvira, Maria Paula Diaz, Rocio Gamez, Maria Paula Garcia, Luis Guillermo Gómez, Lisseth Gonzalez, Silvia Gonzalez, Carlos Grijalba, Leidys Gutierrez, David Leal, Nicolas Lemus, Etelvina Mahecha, Maria Paula Mahecha, Rosalba Mahecha, Andrea Ramirez, Paola Rios, Andres Suarez, Camilo Triana, Elli Hovi, Jemina Kivelä, Sari Räsänen, Sanna Roito, Taru Saloheimo, Leena Valta, Anura Kurpad, Rebecca Kuriyan, Deepa P. Lokesh, Michelle Stephanie D'Almeida, R. Annie Mattilda, Lygia Correa, D. Vijay, Lucy Joy Wachira, Stella Muthuri, Alessandra Da Silva Borges, Sofia Oliveira Sá Cachada, Raquel Nichele De Chaves, Thayse Natacha Queiroz Ferreira Gomes, Sara Isabel Sampaio Pereira, Daniel Monteiro De Vilhena E Santos, Fernanda Karina Dos Santos, Pedro Gil Rodrigues Da Silva, Michele Caroline De Souza, Vicki Lambert, Matthew April, Monika Uys, Nirmala Naidoo, Nandi Synyanya, Madelaine Carstens, Sean Cumming, Clemens Drenowatz, Lydia Emm, Fiona Gillison, Julia Zakrzewski, Ashley Braud, Sheletta Donatto, Corbin Lemon, Ana Jackson, Ashunti Pearson, Gina Pennington, Daniel Ragus, Ryan Roubion, John Schuna, Derek Wiltz, Alan Batterham, Jacqueline Kerr, Michael Pratt, Angelo Pietrobelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between outdoor time and physical activity (PA), sedentary time (SED), and body mass index z scores among children from 12 lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income countries. Methods: In total, 6478 children (54.4% girls) aged 9-11 years participated. Outdoor time was self-reported, PA and SED were assessed with ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers, and height and weight were measured. Data on parental education, neighborhood collective efficacy, and accessibility to neighborhood recreation facilities were collected from parent questionnaires. Country latitude and climate statistics were collected through national weather data sources. Gender-stratified multilevel models with parental education, climate, and neighborhood variables as covariates were used to examine the relationship between outdoor time, accelerometry measures, and body mass index z scores. Results: Each additional hour per day spent outdoors was associated with higher moderate-to vigorous-intensity PA (boys: +2.8 min/d; girls: +1.4 min/d), higher light-intensity PA (boys: +2.0 min/d; girls: +2.3 min/d), and lower SED (boys: -6.3 min/d; girls: -5.1 min/d). Effect sizes were generally weaker in lower-middle-income countries. Outdoor time was not associated with body mass index z scores. Conclusions: Outdoor time was associated with higher PA and lower SED independent of climate, parental education, and neighborhood variables, but effect sizes were small. However, more research is needed in low-and middle-income countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118-129
Number of pages12
JournalPediatric exercise science
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Exercise
  • Health promotion
  • Motor behavior

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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