In the present work, the performance of molybdenum dioxide (MoO2) as catalytic material for the partial oxidation of a Jet A fuel surrogate has been investigated in terms of both catalytic activity and thermodynamic stability. Our findings indicate that the stability window of MoO2 is limited by the formation of Mo carbides under reducing environments and MoO3 in oxidizing atmospheres. However, these phase transitions do not appear to significantly affect the catalytic activity as the mechanism of reaction seems to involve only surface and probably a few subsurface layers. The catalytic activity was determined as a function of the molecular oxygen to carbon molar (O2/C) ratio, which ranged from 0.5 to 1.0. The amount of syngas produced was found to be 21-32% below the equilibrium values for hydrogen, and 3-18% for carbon monoxide. In addition, Mo dioxide was found to display higher resistance to deactivation by coking compared to that of a commercial Ni catalyst used a reference. Finally, MoO2 shows a significant tolerance to sulfur compounds such as benzothiophene, which was not able to completely deactivate the catalyst even at concentrations as high as 3000 ppmw. These properties along with the well-known electrical conductivity of MoO2 make it a promising catalytic material not only for reforming purposes but also as anode material for solid oxide fuel cells.