Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

Darrell S. Kaufman, David P. Schneider, Nicholas P. McKay, Caspar M. Ammann, Raymond S. Bradley, Keith R. Briffa, Gifford H. Miller, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jonathan T. Overpeck, Bo M. Vinther, M. Abbott, Y. Axford, B. Bird, H. J.B. Birks, A. E. Bjune, J. Briner, T. Cook, Melissa Chipman, P. Francus, K. GajewskiÁ Geirsddttir, F. S. Hu, B. Kutchko, S. Lamoureux, M. Loso, G. MacDonald, M. Peros, D. Porinchu, C. Schiff, H. Seppä, E. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

464 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The temperature history of the first millennium CE. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 6O°N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1236-1239
Number of pages4
JournalScience
Volume325
Issue number5945
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 14 2009
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Proxy
Climate
Temperature
Ice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Kaufman, D. S., Schneider, D. P., McKay, N. P., Ammann, C. M., Bradley, R. S., Briffa, K. R., ... Thomas, E. (2009). Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling. Science, 325(5945), 1236-1239. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1173983

Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling. / Kaufman, Darrell S.; Schneider, David P.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Ammann, Caspar M.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Briffa, Keith R.; Miller, Gifford H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Vinther, Bo M.; Abbott, M.; Axford, Y.; Bird, B.; Birks, H. J.B.; Bjune, A. E.; Briner, J.; Cook, T.; Chipman, Melissa; Francus, P.; Gajewski, K.; Geirsddttir, Á; Hu, F. S.; Kutchko, B.; Lamoureux, S.; Loso, M.; MacDonald, G.; Peros, M.; Porinchu, D.; Schiff, C.; Seppä, H.; Thomas, E.

In: Science, Vol. 325, No. 5945, 14.09.2009, p. 1236-1239.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kaufman, DS, Schneider, DP, McKay, NP, Ammann, CM, Bradley, RS, Briffa, KR, Miller, GH, Otto-Bliesner, BL, Overpeck, JT, Vinther, BM, Abbott, M, Axford, Y, Bird, B, Birks, HJB, Bjune, AE, Briner, J, Cook, T, Chipman, M, Francus, P, Gajewski, K, Geirsddttir, Á, Hu, FS, Kutchko, B, Lamoureux, S, Loso, M, MacDonald, G, Peros, M, Porinchu, D, Schiff, C, Seppä, H & Thomas, E 2009, 'Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling', Science, vol. 325, no. 5945, pp. 1236-1239. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1173983
Kaufman DS, Schneider DP, McKay NP, Ammann CM, Bradley RS, Briffa KR et al. Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling. Science. 2009 Sep 14;325(5945):1236-1239. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1173983
Kaufman, Darrell S. ; Schneider, David P. ; McKay, Nicholas P. ; Ammann, Caspar M. ; Bradley, Raymond S. ; Briffa, Keith R. ; Miller, Gifford H. ; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L. ; Overpeck, Jonathan T. ; Vinther, Bo M. ; Abbott, M. ; Axford, Y. ; Bird, B. ; Birks, H. J.B. ; Bjune, A. E. ; Briner, J. ; Cook, T. ; Chipman, Melissa ; Francus, P. ; Gajewski, K. ; Geirsddttir, Á ; Hu, F. S. ; Kutchko, B. ; Lamoureux, S. ; Loso, M. ; MacDonald, G. ; Peros, M. ; Porinchu, D. ; Schiff, C. ; Seppä, H. ; Thomas, E. / Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling. In: Science. 2009 ; Vol. 325, No. 5945. pp. 1236-1239.
@article{a76a5f298f3746218929ad3da68863e4,
title = "Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling",
abstract = "The temperature history of the first millennium CE. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 6O°N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.",
author = "Kaufman, {Darrell S.} and Schneider, {David P.} and McKay, {Nicholas P.} and Ammann, {Caspar M.} and Bradley, {Raymond S.} and Briffa, {Keith R.} and Miller, {Gifford H.} and Otto-Bliesner, {Bette L.} and Overpeck, {Jonathan T.} and Vinther, {Bo M.} and M. Abbott and Y. Axford and B. Bird and Birks, {H. J.B.} and Bjune, {A. E.} and J. Briner and T. Cook and Melissa Chipman and P. Francus and K. Gajewski and {\'A} Geirsddttir and Hu, {F. S.} and B. Kutchko and S. Lamoureux and M. Loso and G. MacDonald and M. Peros and D. Porinchu and C. Schiff and H. Sepp{\"a} and E. Thomas",
year = "2009",
month = "9",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1126/science.1173983",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "325",
pages = "1236--1239",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "5945",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recent warming reverses long-term arctic cooling

AU - Kaufman, Darrell S.

AU - Schneider, David P.

AU - McKay, Nicholas P.

AU - Ammann, Caspar M.

AU - Bradley, Raymond S.

AU - Briffa, Keith R.

AU - Miller, Gifford H.

AU - Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.

AU - Overpeck, Jonathan T.

AU - Vinther, Bo M.

AU - Abbott, M.

AU - Axford, Y.

AU - Bird, B.

AU - Birks, H. J.B.

AU - Bjune, A. E.

AU - Briner, J.

AU - Cook, T.

AU - Chipman, Melissa

AU - Francus, P.

AU - Gajewski, K.

AU - Geirsddttir, Á

AU - Hu, F. S.

AU - Kutchko, B.

AU - Lamoureux, S.

AU - Loso, M.

AU - MacDonald, G.

AU - Peros, M.

AU - Porinchu, D.

AU - Schiff, C.

AU - Seppä, H.

AU - Thomas, E.

PY - 2009/9/14

Y1 - 2009/9/14

N2 - The temperature history of the first millennium CE. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 6O°N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.

AB - The temperature history of the first millennium CE. is sparsely documented, especially in the Arctic. We present a synthesis of decadally resolved proxy temperature records from poleward of 6O°N covering the past 2000 years, which indicates that a pervasive cooling in progress 2000 years ago continued through the Middle Ages and into the Little Ice Age. A 2000-year transient climate simulation with the Community Climate System Model shows the same temperature sensitivity to changes in insolation as does our proxy reconstruction, supporting the inference that this long-term trend was caused by the steady orbitally driven reduction in summer insolation. The cooling trend was reversed during the 20th century, with four of the five warmest decades of our 2000-year-long reconstruction occurring between 1950 and 2000.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=69949124821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=69949124821&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1126/science.1173983

DO - 10.1126/science.1173983

M3 - Article

C2 - 19729653

AN - SCOPUS:69949124821

VL - 325

SP - 1236

EP - 1239

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 5945

ER -