Rates and Covariates of Recent Sexual and Physical Violence Against HIV-Infected Outpatient Drinkers in Western Kenya

Rebecca K. Papas, Benson N. Gakinya, Michael M. Mwaniki, Hana Lee, Stella W. Kiarie, Steve Martino, Michelle P. Loxley, Alfred K. Keter, Debra A. Klein, John E. Sidle, Joyce B. Baliddawa, Stephen A. Maisto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2243-2252
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017


  • Alcohol
  • HIV
  • Kenya
  • Physical violence
  • Sexual violence
  • Transactional sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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