Racial Differences in Left Ventricular Mass and Wave Reflection Intensity in Children

Kevin S. Heffernan, Wesley K. Lefferts, Nader H. Atallah-Yunes, Alaina C. Glasgow, Brooks B. Gump

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The burden of heart failure is disproportionately higher in African Americans, with a higher prevalence seen at an early age. Examination of racial differences in left ventricular mass (LVM) in childhood may offer insight into risk for cardiac target organ damage (cTOD) in adulthood. Central hemodynamic load, a harbinger of cTOD in adults, is higher in African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine racial differences in central hemodynamic load and LVM in African American and non-Hispanic white (NHW) children. Two hundred sixty-nine children participated in this study (age, 10 ± 1 years; n = 149 female, n = 154 African American). Carotid pulse wave velocity (PWV), forward wave intensity (W1) and reflected wave intensity (negative area, NA) was assessed from simultaneously acquired distension and flow velocity waveforms using wave intensity analysis (WIA). Wave reflection magnitude was calculated as NA/W1. LVM was assessed using standard 2D echocardiography and indexed to height as LVM/[height (2.16) + 0.09]. A cutoff of 45 g/m (2.16) was used to define left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVM was higher in African American vs. NHW children (39.2 ± 8.0 vs. 37.2 ± 6.7 g/m (2.16), adjusted for age, sex, carotid systolic pressure and socioeconomic status; p < 0.05). The proportion of LVH was higher in African American vs. NHW children (25 vs. 12 %, p < 0.05). African American and NHW children did not differ in carotid PWV (3.5 ± 4.9 vs. 3.3 ± 1.3 m/s; p > 0.05). NA/W1 was higher in African American vs. NHW children (8.5 ± 5.3 vs. 6.7 ± 2.9; p < 0.05). Adjusting for NA/W1 attenuated racial differences in LVM (38.8 ± 8.0 vs. 37.6 ± 7.0 g/m (2.16); p = 0.19). In conclusion, racial differences in central hemodynamic load and cTOD are present in childhood. African American children have greater wave intensity from reflected waves and higher LVMI compared to NHW children. WIA offers novel insight into early life origins of racial differences in central hemodynamic load and cTOD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number132
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
Volume8
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 31 2020

Keywords

  • children
  • left ventricular mass
  • vascular stiffness
  • wave intensity analysis
  • wave reflection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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