@article{e6fdc410eb324a2488a33b1c59618082,

title = "Quantum correlations between light and the kilogram-mass mirrors of LIGO",

abstract = "The measurement of minuscule forces and displacements with ever greater precision is inhibited by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which imposes a limit to the precision with which the position of an object can be measured continuously, known as the standard quantum limit1–4. When light is used as the probe, the standard quantum limit arises from the balance between the uncertainties of the photon radiation pressure applied to the object and of the photon number in the photoelectric detection. The only way to surpass the standard quantum limit is by introducing correlations between the position/momentum uncertainty of the object and the photon number/phase uncertainty of the light that it reflects5. Here we confirm experimentally the theoretical prediction5 that this type of quantum correlation is naturally produced in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). We characterize and compare noise spectra taken without squeezing and with squeezed vacuum states injected at varying quadrature angles. After subtracting classical noise, our measurements show that the quantum mechanical uncertainties in the phases of the 200-kilowatt laser beams and in the positions of the 40-kilogram mirrors of the Advanced LIGO detectors yield a joint quantum uncertainty that is a factor of 1.4 (3 decibels) below the standard quantum limit. We anticipate that the use of quantum correlations will improve not only the observation of gravitational waves, but also more broadly future quantum noise-limited measurements.",

author = "{members of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration} and Haocun Yu and L. McCuller and M. Tse and N. Kijbunchoo and L. Barsotti and N. Mavalvala and J. Betzwieser and Blair, {C. D.} and Dwyer, {S. E.} and A. Effler and M. Evans and A. Fernandez-Galiana and P. Fritschel and Frolov, {V. V.} and F. Matichard and McClelland, {D. E.} and T. McRae and A. Mullavey and D. Sigg and Slagmolen, {B. J.J.} and C. Whittle and A. Buikema and Y. Chen and Corbitt, {T. R.} and R. Schnabel and R. Abbott and C. Adams and Adhikari, {R. X.} and A. Ananyeva and S. Appert and K. Arai and Areeda, {J. S.} and Y. Asali and Aston, {S. M.} and C. Austin and Baer, {A. M.} and M. Ball and Ballmer, {S. W.} and S. Banagiri and D. Barker and J. Bartlett and Berger, {B. K.} and D. Bhattacharjee and G. Billingsley and S. Biscans and Blair, {R. M.} and N. Bode and P. Booker and R. Bork and A. Bramley",

note = "Funding Information: Acknowledgements LIGO was constructed by the California Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with funding from the National Science Foundation, and operates under Cooperative Agreement number PHY-1764464. Advanced LIGO was built under grant number PHY-0823459. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Australian Research Council under the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery grant number CE170100004, Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities grant number LE170100217 and Discovery Early Career Award number DE190100437; the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant number 1122374; the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom; and the LIGO Scientific Collaboration Fellows programme.",

year = "2020",

month = jul,

day = "2",

doi = "10.1038/s41586-020-2420-8",

language = "English (US)",

volume = "583",

pages = "43--47",

journal = "Nature",

issn = "0028-0836",

publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

number = "7814",

}