Predicting students’ negative emotions in college remedial mathematics courses

Seung Won Park, Moon Heum Cho, Seongmi Lim, Seokwon Hwang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Althoughone of the challenges in college remedial mathematics courses involves dealing with negative emotions adversely impacting student achievement, little empirical research has been conducted to examine the factors contributing to the formation of such emotions in these settings. The purpose of this study was to examine whether background variables, motivation, and self-regulation predicted students’ negative emotions, measured with boredom, frustration, and test anxiety. A total of 201 students taking a remedial mathematics course using an adaptive system—Assessment Learning in Knowledge Space (ALEKS)—participated in the study at a small public university in the midwestern United States. Hierarchical regression was used for the data analysis. Results indicate that students’ age (a background variable) and motivation as shown in extrinsic goal orientation, task value, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with boredom, frustration, and test anxiety. In addition, students’ self-regulation, specifically effort regulation and metacognitive regulation, was related to negative emotions. Discussion of the results and educational implications are included.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)171-188
Number of pages18
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychology of Education
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • Boredom
  • Expectancy‒value theory
  • Frustration
  • Motivation
  • Negative emotion
  • Remedial mathematics
  • Self-regulation
  • Test anxiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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