Polymer Solar Cells Processed Using Anisole as a Relatively Nontoxic Solvent

Swaminathan Venkatesan, Qiliang Chen, Evan C. Ngo, Nirmal Adhikari, Kelly Nelson, Ashish Dubey, Jianyuan Sun, Venkateswara Bommisetty, Cheng Zhang, David Galipeau, Qiquan Qiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


In this study, a relatively nontoxic single solvent, anisole, was successfully used to process polymer solar cells. Blends cast with anisole showed higher polymer aggregation due to lower solubility. Polymer aggregation led to isolated regions that can trap charges in the polymer phase in anisole-based cells, supported by photo-charge extraction by the linearly increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique. However, polymer aggregation resulted in lower bimolecular recombination due to a decreased amount of polymer-PCBM interface as seen in transient photocurrent/photovoltage measurements. The higher charge trapping was compensated by the lower bimolecular recombination and therefore cells fabricated with anisole solvent delivered comparable photovoltaic performance to reference to cells processed with chlorobenzene (CB). Overall anisole was proved to be a friendly solvent to process organic photovoltaics thereby decreasing the risk to human health for large scale production.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-274
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Anisole
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Nontoxic solvents
  • Organic photovoltaics
  • Polymer solar cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Energy


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