Plateau collapse model for the transantarctic mountains-West Antarctic rift system: Insights from numerical experiments

Robert W. Bialas, W. Roger Buck, Michael Studinger, Paul G Fitzgerald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The high elevation and considerable length of the Transantarctic Mountains have led to speculation about their origin. To date, no model has been able to adequately reconcile the juxtaposition of the high, curvilinear Transantarctic Mountains with the adjacent West Antarctic Rift System, a broad region of thin extended continental crust exhibiting wide rift characteristics. We present a first-order investigation into the idea that the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains region was a high-elevation plateau with thicker than normal crust before the onset of continental extension. With major Cretaceous extension, the rift underwent a topographic reversal, and a plateau edge with thickened crust, representing the ancestral Transantarctic Mountains, remained. In the Cenozoic, minor extension and major denudation reduce the crustal root while simultaneously uplifting peak heights in the mountains. The Cretaceous stage of this concept is investigated using two-dimensional numerical models to determine under what conditions plateau collapse is plausible. Model results indicate that elevation of a remnant plateau edge decreases with increasing initial Moho temperature. Very cold initial Moho temperatures, <675 °C, under the plateau leave a thick plateau edge but do not exhibit wide rifting. A cold to moderate initial thermal structure, Moho temperatures of 675-850 °C, is needed to retain the plateau edge and still exhibit wide rifting in the middle of the plateau. We conclude that this plateau collapse concept is possible using these numerical experiments, and that application of this idea to the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains system is also supported by geological and geophysical evidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)687-690
Number of pages4
JournalGeology
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2007

Fingerprint

plateau
mountain
experiment
Moho
rifting
crustal root
crust
Cretaceous
temperature
mountain region
thermal structure
denudation
continental crust

Keywords

  • Antarctica
  • Numerical modeling
  • Plateau collapse
  • Rifting
  • Transantarctic Mountains
  • West Antarctic Rift System

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Plateau collapse model for the transantarctic mountains-West Antarctic rift system : Insights from numerical experiments. / Bialas, Robert W.; Buck, W. Roger; Studinger, Michael; Fitzgerald, Paul G.

In: Geology, Vol. 35, No. 8, 08.2007, p. 687-690.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bialas, Robert W. ; Buck, W. Roger ; Studinger, Michael ; Fitzgerald, Paul G. / Plateau collapse model for the transantarctic mountains-West Antarctic rift system : Insights from numerical experiments. In: Geology. 2007 ; Vol. 35, No. 8. pp. 687-690.
@article{5025a305812d4f4ebcb45aabbf312999,
title = "Plateau collapse model for the transantarctic mountains-West Antarctic rift system: Insights from numerical experiments",
abstract = "The high elevation and considerable length of the Transantarctic Mountains have led to speculation about their origin. To date, no model has been able to adequately reconcile the juxtaposition of the high, curvilinear Transantarctic Mountains with the adjacent West Antarctic Rift System, a broad region of thin extended continental crust exhibiting wide rift characteristics. We present a first-order investigation into the idea that the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains region was a high-elevation plateau with thicker than normal crust before the onset of continental extension. With major Cretaceous extension, the rift underwent a topographic reversal, and a plateau edge with thickened crust, representing the ancestral Transantarctic Mountains, remained. In the Cenozoic, minor extension and major denudation reduce the crustal root while simultaneously uplifting peak heights in the mountains. The Cretaceous stage of this concept is investigated using two-dimensional numerical models to determine under what conditions plateau collapse is plausible. Model results indicate that elevation of a remnant plateau edge decreases with increasing initial Moho temperature. Very cold initial Moho temperatures, <675 °C, under the plateau leave a thick plateau edge but do not exhibit wide rifting. A cold to moderate initial thermal structure, Moho temperatures of 675-850 °C, is needed to retain the plateau edge and still exhibit wide rifting in the middle of the plateau. We conclude that this plateau collapse concept is possible using these numerical experiments, and that application of this idea to the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains system is also supported by geological and geophysical evidence.",
keywords = "Antarctica, Numerical modeling, Plateau collapse, Rifting, Transantarctic Mountains, West Antarctic Rift System",
author = "Bialas, {Robert W.} and Buck, {W. Roger} and Michael Studinger and Fitzgerald, {Paul G}",
year = "2007",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1130/G23825A.1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "35",
pages = "687--690",
journal = "Geology",
issn = "0091-7613",
publisher = "Geological Society of America",
number = "8",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Plateau collapse model for the transantarctic mountains-West Antarctic rift system

T2 - Insights from numerical experiments

AU - Bialas, Robert W.

AU - Buck, W. Roger

AU - Studinger, Michael

AU - Fitzgerald, Paul G

PY - 2007/8

Y1 - 2007/8

N2 - The high elevation and considerable length of the Transantarctic Mountains have led to speculation about their origin. To date, no model has been able to adequately reconcile the juxtaposition of the high, curvilinear Transantarctic Mountains with the adjacent West Antarctic Rift System, a broad region of thin extended continental crust exhibiting wide rift characteristics. We present a first-order investigation into the idea that the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains region was a high-elevation plateau with thicker than normal crust before the onset of continental extension. With major Cretaceous extension, the rift underwent a topographic reversal, and a plateau edge with thickened crust, representing the ancestral Transantarctic Mountains, remained. In the Cenozoic, minor extension and major denudation reduce the crustal root while simultaneously uplifting peak heights in the mountains. The Cretaceous stage of this concept is investigated using two-dimensional numerical models to determine under what conditions plateau collapse is plausible. Model results indicate that elevation of a remnant plateau edge decreases with increasing initial Moho temperature. Very cold initial Moho temperatures, <675 °C, under the plateau leave a thick plateau edge but do not exhibit wide rifting. A cold to moderate initial thermal structure, Moho temperatures of 675-850 °C, is needed to retain the plateau edge and still exhibit wide rifting in the middle of the plateau. We conclude that this plateau collapse concept is possible using these numerical experiments, and that application of this idea to the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains system is also supported by geological and geophysical evidence.

AB - The high elevation and considerable length of the Transantarctic Mountains have led to speculation about their origin. To date, no model has been able to adequately reconcile the juxtaposition of the high, curvilinear Transantarctic Mountains with the adjacent West Antarctic Rift System, a broad region of thin extended continental crust exhibiting wide rift characteristics. We present a first-order investigation into the idea that the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains region was a high-elevation plateau with thicker than normal crust before the onset of continental extension. With major Cretaceous extension, the rift underwent a topographic reversal, and a plateau edge with thickened crust, representing the ancestral Transantarctic Mountains, remained. In the Cenozoic, minor extension and major denudation reduce the crustal root while simultaneously uplifting peak heights in the mountains. The Cretaceous stage of this concept is investigated using two-dimensional numerical models to determine under what conditions plateau collapse is plausible. Model results indicate that elevation of a remnant plateau edge decreases with increasing initial Moho temperature. Very cold initial Moho temperatures, <675 °C, under the plateau leave a thick plateau edge but do not exhibit wide rifting. A cold to moderate initial thermal structure, Moho temperatures of 675-850 °C, is needed to retain the plateau edge and still exhibit wide rifting in the middle of the plateau. We conclude that this plateau collapse concept is possible using these numerical experiments, and that application of this idea to the West Antarctic Rift System-Transantarctic Mountains system is also supported by geological and geophysical evidence.

KW - Antarctica

KW - Numerical modeling

KW - Plateau collapse

KW - Rifting

KW - Transantarctic Mountains

KW - West Antarctic Rift System

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34548076000&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34548076000&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1130/G23825A.1

DO - 10.1130/G23825A.1

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:34548076000

VL - 35

SP - 687

EP - 690

JO - Geology

JF - Geology

SN - 0091-7613

IS - 8

ER -