Since their discovery, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as powerhouses in the regulation of numerous cellular processes. In addition to guarding the integrity of the reproductive system, small non-coding RNAs play critical roles in the maintenance of the soma. Accumulating evidence indicates that small non-coding RNAs perform vital functions in the animal nervous system such as restricting the activity of deleterious transposable elements, regulating nerve regeneration, and mediating learning and memory. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the contribution of two major classes of small non-coding RNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs, to the nervous system development and function, and present highlights on how the dysregulation of small non-coding RNA pathways can assist in understanding the neuropathology of human neurological disorders.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology