Personality assessment in DSM-5: Empirical support for rating severity, style, and traits

Christopher J. Hopwood, Johanna C. Malone, Emily Ansell, Charles A. Sanislow, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Anthony Pinto, John C. Markowitz, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, John G. Gunderson, Mary C. Zanarini, Leslie C. Morey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

154 Scopus citations


Despite a general consensus that dimensional models are superior to the categorical representations of personality disorders in DSM-IV, proposals for how to depict personality pathology dimensions vary substantially. One important question involves how to separate clinical severity from the style of expression through which personality pathology manifests. This study empirically distinguished stylistic elements of personality pathology symptoms from the overall severity of personality disorder in a large, longitudinally assessed clinical sample (N = 605). Data suggest that generalized severity is the most important single predictor of current and prospective dysfunction, but that stylistic elements also indicate specific areas of difficulty. Normative personality traits tend to relate to the general propensity for personality pathology, but not stylistic elements of personality disorders. Overall, findings support a three-stage diagnostic strategy involving a global rating of personality disorder severity, ratings of parsimonious and discriminant valid stylistic elements of personality disorder, and ratings of normative personality traits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)305-320
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Personality Disorders
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2011


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology

Cite this

Hopwood, C. J., Malone, J. C., Ansell, E., Sanislow, C. A., Grilo, C. M., Mcglashan, T. H., Pinto, A., Markowitz, J. C., Shea, M. T., Skodol, A. E., Gunderson, J. G., Zanarini, M. C., & Morey, L. C. (2011). Personality assessment in DSM-5: Empirical support for rating severity, style, and traits. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 305-320.