In this paper, considering randomly distributed access points and energy-harvesting user equipments, we study the impact of downlink/uplink operation intervals as well as receiver power splitting factor on the performance of cellular networks. We assume that the access points transmit information and power transfer simultaneously over the downlink channels to the associated user equipments, where the link is established based on lowest path loss. Using stochastic geometry, we characterize the average harvested energy and SINR coverage probabilities as a function of system parameters. In addition, we consider outage capacity and ergodic capacity for the downlink and uplink information transfer, respectively. Furthermore, we obtain an expression for the system energy efficiency (measured by throughput per total consumed energy) in terms of uplink/downlink operating intervals and power splitting factor. Simulation results demonstrate that both energy efficiency and network throughput improve when the access points are densely populated. Furthermore, we observe that increasing the downlink transmit power level affects the optimal power splitting factor as well as downlink/uplink time allocation strategy.