Thirty-eight middle- to lower-income Brazilian fathers in two-parent families provided estimates of different dimensions of their involvement with their school-aged children, assessed children's social competence, and rated their beliefs on family roles. Analyses showed that fathers and mothers spent similar amounts of time in different activities with children, but did differ in didactic interactions, their responsibility for, and actually disciplining children. There were no significant differences in participation due to gender of child or income. Fathers' ideological beliefs about gender roles were positively related to involvement in disciplining children and inversely related to engagement in social activities with children. Fathers' involvement in disciplining children was negatively associated with childhood social competence after controlling for mothers' contribution.
- Children's competence
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Gender Studies
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology