Solid-state nanopores have emerged as powerful new tools for electrically characterizing single DNA molecules. When DNA molecules are made to rapidly translocate a nanopore by electrophoresis, the resulting ionic current blockage provides information about the molecular length and folding conformation. A solid-state nanopore can also be integrated with nanofabricated actuators and sensors, such as an embedded gate electrode or transverse tunneling electrodes, to enhance its functionality. Here we describe detailed methods for fabricating passive solid-state nanopores and using them to detect DNA translocations. We also describe procedures for integrating electrodes into the nanopore membrane in order to create an electrically active structure. Finally, we describe how to modulate the ionic conductance through a pore whose inner surface is surrounded by an embedded annular gate electrode.