Particle swarm optimization: Surfing the waves

Ender Ozcan, Chilukuri K. Mohan

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

373 Scopus citations


A new optimization method has been proposed by J. Kennedy and R.C. Eberhart (1997; 1995), called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). This approach combines social psychology principles and evolutionary computation. It has been applied successfully to nonlinear function optimization and neural network training. Preliminary formal analyses showed that a particle in a simple one-dimensional PSO system follows a path defined by a sinusoidal wave, randomly deciding on both its amplitude and frequency (Y. Shi and R. Eberhart, 1998). The paper takes the next step, generalizing to obtain closed form equations for trajectories of particles in a multi-dimensional search space.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 1999
Event1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 1999 - Washington, DC, United States
Duration: Jul 6 1999Jul 9 1999


Other1999 Congress on Evolutionary Computation, CEC 1999
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityWashington, DC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mathematics


Dive into the research topics of 'Particle swarm optimization: Surfing the waves'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this